Where Arabinogalactan can be found
Where Arabinogalactan can be found? Arabinogalactans are found in several microbial systems, especially acid-fast Mycobacteria where it is complexed between peptidoglycans and mycolic acids as a component of the cell wall and influences monocyte-macrophage immunoreactivity of Tubercular antigen. Many edible and inedible plants are rich sources of arabinogalactans, mostly in glycoprotein form, bound to a protein spine of either threonine, proline or serine (“arabinogalactan protein”). These include leek seeds, carrots, radish, black gram beans, pear, maize, wheat, red wine, Italian ryegrass, tomatoes, ragweed, sorghum and bamboo grass, coconut meat and milk. Several of the major naturopathic immune “enhancer” herbs contain significant amounts of arabinogalactans, such as Echinacea purpurea (Glycoprotein macromolecules from acacia gum (gum arabic) contain 95-99% of Arabinogalactan and 1-5% of proteins), Baptisia tinctoria, Thuja occidentalis, Angelica acutiloba and Curcuma longa.
Arabinogalactans are found in a variety of plants but are more abundant in the Larix genus, primarily Mongolian larch (Larix Dahurica), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica), Western larch (Larix occidentalis). Most commercial arabinogalactan is produced from Western larch, a renewable resource, through a counter-current extraction process.
The Arabinogalactan found in most plants is bound to protein and makes up part of the sturdy cell wall. By contrast, Arabinogalactan from the larch tree is found in the center or the lumen of the cell in a form that is not bound to protein. Larch Arabinogalactan is extracted from the plant cell in its natural state.
Unlike other AG, Siberian larch Arabinogalactan has low molecular mass (average molecular mass 9000–13000) and low polydispersity index (1.9–2.3).